Li-Ion BMS

Motor drivers

Comparison list of available DC motor controllers and AC motor inverters

This is a list of motor drivers (DC and AC) for electrical vehicle use (for BEVs, HEVs, PHEVs).

This information does not constitute an endorsement of any of these companies and products.
While the information presented here is believed to be accurate, We take no responsibility for any errors.
Please send us comments, corrections and additions.

back to topCategorization of rotary electric motors

Table with full classification of rotary electric motors

Motor drivers for electric motors commonly used in EVs:

back to topDC motor controllers for series, permanent magnet or integral controller DC brushless motors

These motor controllers have 1 DC output (2 wires) with a variable DC voltage.

This voltage is typically a PWM (Pulse Width Modulated) wave, not a filtered (flat) DC voltage. The motor itself, thanks to its inductance, tends to smooth the PWM voltage wave into a continuous current.

Most of these controllers are 1-quadrant: they can drive in one direction, and they cannot brake. With the addition of a set of reversing contactors, they can drive in either direction (but no braking). 2-quadrant motor drivers (they can also to regenerative braking. or they can drive in either direction) are not common. A few are 4-quadrant: they can drive or brake in either direction, without the need for reversing contactors.

In general, these motor controllers will work with these motor types:

  • Brushed, series wound DC motors: the current flows through an armature winding to create the stator's magnetic field, and, through a commutator, to create the AC voltage powering the rotor
  • Permanent magnet DC motors (PM): a magnet generates the stator's magnetic field; the current flows through a commutator, to create the AC voltage powering the rotor
  • Integral controller DC Brushless motors: magnets generate the rotor's magnetic field; additional electronics inside the motor convert the DC voltage to AC to drive the windings in the stator
  • Brushed, shunt wound DC motors: the voltage is applied in parallel to an armature winding (to create the stator's magnetic field), and, through a commutator (to create an AC voltage), to the the rotor

The first types two are common; the third type is not common at these power levels; the fourth type is available, but is typically powered by a Sepex driver (see next section).

Note that a Sepex driver (see next section) may also drive any of these motors.

Many of these DC motor controllers are for low voltage applications (12, 24 or 48 V), such as golf carts. Typically they are not isolated.

Manuf Location Models Nominal
voltage
[Vdc]
Contin.
current
[Arms]
Peak
current
[Arms]
Quad-
rants
(3)
Isol. CAN Notes Lithiumate
compatible
Wire CAN
4QD UK 1QD 12~48 100 20 1
2QD 10~56 50~100 2
4QD 18~66 210~320 4
Porter 12~48 30 2
Pro 120 12~36 115 30 4
Pro 150 16~48 60 150 4
Unispeed 12~48 30 85 1
Vortex 12~36 55~110 4
ASI
Accelerated
Systems

(Navitas)
Canada TSE 24~96 325 1000 1
TSX 24~96 325 1000 1
CTL 12~48 450 1
TSP 12~48 400 1
BAC500 21~48 60 1
BAC1000 21~72 120 2
BAC2000 30~60 75 120 2 ✓(1)
BAC3000 21~72 240 2
TPM100 24~48 30 100 4 ✓(1)
TPM400 24~48 200 400 4 ✓(1)
TPM600 24~48 200 600 4 ✓(1)
Alltrax US AXE 12~72 200~400 300~650 1
NPX 24~48 125~135 300~400 1
Baldor US Various Line voltage (2)
Belktronix US 500 A 120~144 300 500 1
800 A 120~144 500 800 1
Cafe Electric US Zilla Z1K-LV 72~156 1000 1 (4)
Zilla Z1K-EHV 72~300 1000~2000 1 (4)
Zilla Z1K-HV 72~375 1000~2000 1 (4)
Zilla Z2K 72~156 2000 1 (4)
Zilla Z2K-HV 72~375 2000 1 (4)
Zilla Z2K-EHV 400 2000 1 (4)
Manuf Location Models Nominal
voltage
[Vdc]
Contin.
current
[Arms]
Peak
current
[Arms]
Quad-
rants
(3)
Isol. CAN Notes Lithiumate
compatible
Wire CAN
Curtis US 1204, 1205 36~72 275~500 1
1207 24 250~300 1
1209B 24~72 400~500 1
1221C 72~144 500~550 1
1231C 72~120 400 1
1253 48~80 600 1
1254C 24~80 400~700 1
1210 24 45~70 1
1212 24 45~70 1
1214 24~48 400~600 1
1228 24~36 70~110 1
1225/1235 24~36 90~125 1
1227/1237 24~48 100~250 1
DCP US Raptor 48~156 600 / 1200 1 (4)
Evnetics US Soliton JR 9~342 500 600 1
Soliton 1 9~342 1000 1000 1
Kelly US KDZ 12~72 80~200 100~500 1
KDC 24~120 160~320 400~800 1
PM 12~120 40~200 100~500 4
HPM 24~144 135~450 300~900 4
KDH 24~156 90~900 200~1800 2
HSR 72~144 135~405 300~900 2
Manuf Location Models Nominal
voltage
[Vdc]
Contin.
current
[Arms]
Peak
current
[Arms]
Quad-
rants
(3)
Isol. CAN Notes Lithiumate
compatible
Wire CAN
Logisystems US ? ? ? ? 1 (4)
NetGain Controls US WarP-Drive 160~360 1000~1400 1
Piktronik Slovenia PD3 24~48 260 1
PG drives UK SigmaDrive SRT865L 72~80 240 650 1
SigmaDrive SRT850M 72~80 120 500 1
SigmaDrive SRT465M 24~48 260 650 1
SigmaDrive SRT445M 24~48 180 450 1
SigmaDrive SRT425S 24~48 80 250 1
SigmaDrive PMT835M 72~80 120 350 1
SigmaDrive PMT465L 24~48 260 650 1
SigmaDrive PMT445M 24~48 180 450 1
SigmaDrive PMT425S 24~48 80 250 1
Sevcon UK SC1000 24~48 180~250 1
SC1200 24~36 180 2
SC1400 24~36 75~100 4
Millipak 4Q 48 300 4
Powerpak 24~80 300~600 1
Synkro Motive US un-named 24~156 400 700 1
Zapi US H0 24~36 180~230 1
PM-4Q 24~36 70~90 4
H-1 24~48 150~300 1
HP-CAN 24~80 450~500 1 ✓(1)
H-2 24~120 ? 1
H-3 36~120 800~1000 1
DUALPM-X 24~48 2x70 ~ 2x120 1
DUALPM-O 24~48 2x90 ~ 2x160 1
Manuf Location Models Nominal
voltage
[Vdc]
Contin.
current
[Arms]
Peak
current
[Arms]
Quad-
rants
(3)
Isol. CAN Notes Lithiumate
compatible
Wire CAN

  1. The motor controller requires a Vehicle Control Unit to interface to other components on CAN bus
  2. AC-powered, industrial grade (not for automotive)
  3. 2 quadrants = one direction with regen.; 4 quadrants = 2 directions with regen.
  4. questionable availability
Open source, Do It Yourself, motor drivers anchor

These motor drivers are made available to everyone.

back to topSeparate exitation (Sepex, SEM) DC motor controllers for shunt motors

These motor controllers have 2 DC outputs (3 or 4 wires):

  • A 2-wire, high power output with a variable DC voltage, for the rotor
  • A 2-wire, lower power output, with a (usually fixed) DC voltage, for the armature

With the addition of 2 sets of reversing contactors, these controllers can be easily used in 4-quadrant operation: they can drive or brake in either direction.

These motor controllers will work with this motor type:

  • Brushed, shunt wound DC motors: the armature voltage is applied to an armature winding (to create the stator's magnetic field); the main voltage, through a commutator (to create an AC voltage), is apllied to the the rotor
  • Any other DC motor (see previous section)
Manuf Location Models Nominal
voltage
[Vdc]
Contin.
current
[Arms]
Peak
current
[Arms]
Notes Lithiumate
compatible (4)
Wire CAN
Alltrax US DCX 24, 48 300~600 (1)
NCX 24, 48 300 (1)
Curtis US 1243 24~36 200~350 (2) VCL
1244 24~80 400~700 (2) VCL
1266 36~48 275~350
1268 36~48 400~500
Kelly US KDZ 12~72 90~260 200~650 (1)(3)
KDC 24~120 400~800 (1)
HSE 24~144 270~540 (1)(3)
Navitas Canada TSX 24~48 500 (1)(2) VCU
PG drives UK SigmaDrive SET 24~80 250~650 (3)
Sevcon UK Micropak 24~48 180~270 (3)
Millipak 24~48 500~600 (3)
Powerpak SEM 24~48 300~600 (3)
Zapi US SEM-X 24~36 110
SEM-0 24~36 200
SEM-1 24~48 200,350 (2)
SEM-2 24~72 250~500
SEM-3 48~72 500
Manuf Location Models Nominal
voltage
[Vdc]
Contin.
current
[Arms]
Peak
current
[Arms]
Notes Lithiumate
compatible (4)
Wire CAN
  1. non-isolated
  2. CAN available
  3. regen available
  4. CAN compatibility:
    • Direct: plug-in compatible
    • VCU: the motor controller requires a Vehicle Control Unit to interface to other components on CAN bus
    • VCL: Curtis controller needs to be programmed using its Vehicle Control Language
back to topMotor controllers AC motors: induction, controller-less brushless motors, etc.

These motor controllers output a 3-phase, PWM (Pulse Width Modulated) output, sinusoidal or trapezoidal in shape, to power the 3 phases of an AC motor.

Inherently, these controllers can work in 4-quadrant operation: they can drive or brake in either direction.

These motor controllers will work with these motor types:

  • Induction
  • Synchronous, including Hysteresis, Synchronous reluctance, Switched reluctance
  • Wound rotor
  • Permanent magnet AC (PMAC), including controller-less Brushless motors (BLDC, BLAC / PMSM):

There is nothing that is DC in BLDC motors: these are truly AC motors, so we should really call them BLAC instead. However, the name BLAC is used for slightly different motors, with a sinusoidal magnetic field, instead of trapezoidal.

BLDC motors are designed for a trapezoidal waveform. While some have used BLDC controllers (trapezoidal) with induction or BLAC motors (sinusoidal), the efficiency of the motor will suffer, and the motor will run a bit more roughly.

BLDC motors are designed for a sinusoidal waveform. While some have used inverters (sinusoidal) with BLDC motors (trapezoidal), the efficiency of the motor will suffer, and the motor will run a bit more roughly.

Stepper motors are also AC motors, but drivers for such motors are not included here because they are not used as traction motors

Most of these AC motor inverters are for high voltage applications (> 100 V), such as passenger vehicles, heavy duty and industrial.

Most of these AC motor inverters are isolated, and they typically have a CAN bus interface.

Originally, the "inverter" name referred to deviced to convert DC to a fixed line frequency (50 / 60 Hz) and a fixed line voltage (110, 220, 400... Vac) Eventually, the name was applied also to AC motor drivers, even though their voltage and frequency vary considerably.

Manuf Location Models Nominal
voltage
[Vdc]
Contin.
current
[Arms]
Peak
current
[Arms]
Notes BLDC Lithiumate
compatible (5)
Wire CAN
AC Propulsion US AC-150 Gen-2 336~360 200 580 (2)(3) VCU
Azure Dynamics
Formerly Solectria
Defunct
US DMOC445 100~400 140 280 (2) VCU
DMOC645 100~400 212 414 (2) VCU
Baldor US Various Line voltage (4)
CalMotors US GP450 240~820 225 450 (1)(2) ✓Direct
GP1000 200~820 670 1000 (2) ✓Direct
Centric Automotive The Netherlands Thrust | 200 200~750 300 350 (1) ✓Direct
Curtis US 1230 24 150~200 VCL
1232 24 150~250 VCL
1234 24~48 200~350 VCL
1236 24~80 300~500 VCL
1238 24~80 550~800 VCL
1238R 72~96 550~650 VCL
1298 24 200~300 VCL
Eaton US Various (4)
FZ Sonick S.A
Formerly MES-DEA / Cebi
Italy / Switzerland TIM 300 80~450 140 210 ✓Direct
TIM 400 80~450 186 280 ✓Direct
TIM 600 80~450 266 400 ✓Direct
HEC Drives The Netherlands TI-4520 100~450 200 280 (2) VCU
TI-9030 100~820 350 900 (2) VCU
Jon Elis Lithuania Amperbox-75 144 500 750 (2)
Kelly US KBL 12~144 200~800 (6)(1)
KHB 18~180 250 600 (1)(8)
KBLI 12~144 200~800
HP 24~144 800~1000 (6)(1)
KEB 24~72 100~350 (6)(1)
KSL 12~120 50~250 (6)
Manuf Location Models Nominal
voltage
[Vdc]
Contin.
current
[Arms]
Peak
current
[Arms]
Notes BLDC Lithiumate
compatible (5)
Wire CAN
Mission motors US MC600 450 275 600 VCU
Navitas Canada BLDC48800 24~48 80 (6)
BLDC481200 24~48 150 (6)
BLDC482500 24~48 225 (6)
TM4 Canada 80 kW 220~400 (2) ✓Direct
200 kW 200~400 (2) ✓Direct
Piktronik Slovenia SAC1 24~48 50 110 VCU
SAC1-75A 24~48 75 110 VCU
SAC4 24~60 200 300 VCU
SAC4W 24~60 240 280 VCU
SAC41 96~290 250 280 VCU
SAC50 96~370 VCU
SAC60 96~240 320 400 VCU
Rinehart Motion (RMS) US PM100DX 160~360 300 VCU
PM100DZ 300~720 150 VCU
PG drives UK SigmaDrive ACT865L 72~80 240 460 VCU
SigmaDrive ACT835M 72~80 120 250 VCU
SigmaDrive ACT817S 72~80 70 120 VCU
SigmaDrive ACT465L 24~48 180 320 VCU
SigmaDrive ACT445M 24~48 180 320 VCU
SigmaDrive ACT425S 24~48 80 180 VCU
SigmaDrive ACT225S 24 80 180 VCU
Manuf Location Models Nominal
voltage
[Vdc]
Contin.
current
[Arms]
Peak
current
[Arms]
Notes BLDC Lithiumate
compatible (5)
Wire CAN
Semikron Germany SKAI 150~800 VCU
Sevcon UK Gen4 24~80 75~260 215~780 VCU
Gen4 size8 128~400 200 240 VCU
Nano 24~80 300~450 VCU
GpAC 150~350 800 VCU
Siemens Germany Various (4)
Tritium Australia WaveSculptor22 160 100 VCU
Wavesculptor200 450 300 VCU
UQM US HiTor 250~430 69 116 (2) VCU
PowerPhase 125 250~430 172 290 (2) VCU
PowerPhase 145 250~430 200 336 (2) VCU
PowerPhase 150 250~430 207 348 (2) VCU
PowerPhase 200 250~430 276 464 (2) VCU
PowerPhase 75 250~430 103 174 (2) VCU
Zapi US CombiAC-0 24~80 180~320 VCU
CombiAC-1 24~80 225~350 VCU
AC-1 24~80 160~250 VCU
AC-2 24~120 300~550 VCU
AC-3 36~120 450~600 VCU
AC-4 36~96 550~750 VCU
AC-5 36~120 750~1000 VCU
DualAC-2 24~80 300~500 VCU
Unknown company China?
Resold by Greenstage in NZ
Scott Drive 100
(Rumor of a -200 and a -300,
but no info on line)
200~425 400 450 VCU
Manuf Location Models Nominal
voltage
[Vdc]
Contin.
current
[Arms]
Peak
current
[Arms]
Notes BLDC Lithiumate
compatible (5)
Wire CAN

  1. Includes Vehicle Control Unit (VCU)
  2. Includes motor
  3. Includes charger, DC-DC, V2G
  4. AC-powered, industrial grade (not for automotive)
  5. CAN compatibility:
    • Direct: plug-in compatible withe the Elithion Lithiumate Pro BMS
    • VCU: the motor controller requires a Vehicle Control Unit to interface to other components on CAN bus
    • VCL: Curtis controller needs to be programmed using its Vehicle Control Language
  6. Non-isolated
  7. BLDC drive (trapezoidal)
  8. Kelly's CAN bus is of limited use: you cannot control the motor controller with it
back to topSee also

These companies offer complete power trains.

© 2008~2014 Davide Andrea. All rights reserved, except where noted by CC mark. Page published on Sep 05 2013. Graphic design by morninglori
 

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