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White Paper - Notation for Series / parallel arrangement of battery cells

Interactive utility to explore and get notation for any arrangement

This interactive utility allows you to arrange cells in a battery, displays the standard notation for that arrangement, demontrsates how the specifications are affected by the arrangement, lists pros and cons, and shows graphically what that arrangement looks like.

In a battery with cells both in series and in parallel, connecting the cells first in series or first in parallel does matter: it affects performance (in case of weak cells) and cost (BMS complexity).

The order of 'S' and 'P' in the notation for the arrangement does matter: it indicates whether cells are first connected in series or in parallel. 3P4S means that 3 cells are connected directly in parallel first; while 4S3P means that 3 strings are connected in parallel last.

Arrangement Series Parallel












Description Notation
Note that the '' comes first.
Specifications
Item Equation Example Units
Voltage V-cell x N-series V
Capacity Cap-cell x N-par Ah
Energy E-cell x N-cells Wh
Short Discharge Time SDT-cell 100 s
DC resistance R-cell x N-ses / N-par
Max cont. current I-cell x N-par A
Max cont. power P-cell x N-cells W
BMS taps required -
Pros
Cons
B+
18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell
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18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell
18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell
18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell
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18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell
18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell 18650 cell
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B-

Standard notation of Series / parallel arrangement of battery cells.

Davide Andrea, Elithion, 4/21/17

© 2008~2017 Davide Andrea. All rights reserved, except where noted by CC mark. Page published on Apr 24 2017. Graphic design by morninglori